A concrete structure may have anomalies, due to many different causes. The subject is very broad and in it could be deepened with very little probability of exhausting it. This article, with the risk of simplification, will try to summarize (if they can be considered as summaries), some important points that participate in the general problem of the topic.At the moment when a concrete structure is projected and constructed, the engineer generally has, at least, in the mind both the functionality of the work; As a rather indefinite durability if measured in years but which we will call “adequate”; Reasonable retention and repairs that must be carefully taken into account, all of which are framed in a minimum total cost and construction time and generally adjusted to a bidding process or at least to a comparative examination with the competition.
According to the statistical information that is handled, which is subject to many variables, it could possibly be reduced to the following approximate percentages, as to the causes that cause what could be defined as “failure” in concrete structures of buildings, which could be considered as the European average, approximates the following percentages, for a classification as follows:
- Fault attributable to
- From 40 to 45% Project.
- 20 to 25% Execution.
- 10 to 15% Materials
- Remainder Misuse and Miscellaneous
And with respect to the time of occurrence of failures (GJ Martz, 2004), we could consider the percentages:
- Appearance of the fault
- 45% of failures Appear during construction
- 17% “During the warranty period.
- 37% “Between 7 and 10 years.
- Max 1% “After 20 years.
As is to be expected, in the above values, the type of failure caused by events such as an earthquake is not considered. It is therefore important to differentiate, after the presence of an event of this nature between the faults that may already exist and the failures that have appeared due to the phenomenon of nature, as well as existing flaws but which may have become more pronounced.
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Fissures can be considered to be the types of faults most frequently encountered in concrete constructions, so that many researchers, whether individually or as part of various groupings or agencies, have attempted to “catalog” the different types of cracks. Cracking and a kind of somewhat conventional language has been established to designate them. Thus a distinction is made between “crack” and “crack” based on the width of the aperture, but varying somewhat the limit value between them. For many researchers the difference is whether the aperture is greater or less than 2 mm. Likewise the classification refers to “live” or “dead” cracks in reference to whether they have already stabilized or continue their training process.
A way of cataloging the cracking that appears in a concrete structure, is related to the shape and location of the crack itself, so it is usually complemented with photographs or with drawings
Cracks in concrete
There are several situations in which pathological conditions can be present in a concrete structure, and in a summarized form the problem is dealt with in this brief article, since the subject may have very different approaches in which one could get to deepen Form an entire treaty, and it would still be debatable if it were complete.
Within the shortness of this writing, we will try to simplify a complex problem, with the purpose of obtaining some conclusions of practical type.